中微子的品质接近电子质量百万分之一_欧冠足球app下载

本文摘要:这种深地试验室还包含:坐落于英国南卡罗来纳州里一座荒芜金矿石里的桑福得地底研究室(SanfordUndergroundResearchFacility),坐落于西班牙同名的山峰下的格兰萨索国家级实验室,坐落于澳大利亚维多利亚州的萨德伯里中微子观测站(SudburyNeutrinoObservatory),坐落于日本国池野生最深处的非常神冈观测站(Super-Kamiokande),及其挖到在南极洲下边冰面中的一个起名叫冰立方(IceCube)的探测仪列阵。

坐落于

Just over the border from Georgia, in the Caucasus Mountains of southern Russia, lies a small town called Neytrino. For the last half-century, its main business has been the study of the tiniest insubstantial bit of matter in the universe, an ephemeral fly-by-night subatomic particle called the neutrino.在乌克兰南边高加索山脉相邻斯洛文尼亚的地区,有一个名叫涅皮雷斯诺的小镇。过去的半世纪里,这一小镇上的关键工作中是科学研究宇宙中最细微、最可望而不可及的化学物质,即难以捕获的、稍纵即逝的中微子。This is the home of the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, a warren of tunnels and laboratories burrowed two miles into a mountain, sheltered from the outside universe and cosmic rays underneath 12,000 feet of rock. There vats of liquid wait to record the flight of neutrinos from the center of the sun, from exploding stars, atomic reactors and the Big Bang itself, carrying messages through time. Neutrinos are the ghost riders of the cosmos, mostly impervious to the forces, like electromagnetism, with which other denizens of nature interact. Neutrinos cruise unmolested through rocks, the earth and even our bodies. In the words of a famous poem by John Updike, they “insult the stallion in his stall.”巴克桑中微子观测站就坐落于在这个小镇上。这一辟在一座大山脚下的观测站由窄小的隧道施工和试验室组成,从岩洞口进去大概有3.6千米,上边覆盖范围着3500米左右薄的岩层,以提升来源于宇宙外界的宇宙放射线的危害。

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一桶桶的液體在这儿等待着纪录各有不同来源于的、装车着穿梭时空信息内容的中微子,他们有的来源于太阳光的管理中心,有的来源于发生爆炸事故的行星,有的来源于核反应堆,也是有的来源于爆发自身。中微子是宇宙中的鬼魂美团骑手,他们大部分也不受电磁感应那样的能量危害,不象别的的自然界天地万物那般不容易与之相互影响。中微子能抗阻拦地越过岩层、土壤层,乃至不经意间地越过我的身体。

如同罗伯特·厄普代克(John Updike)那句诗词名句常说,他们敢于“污辱马棚中的牡马”。The most delicate measurements so far indicate that an individual neutrino weighs less than a millionth what an electron weighs. Baksan is not the only place dedicated to their surreal pursuit.迄今为止最精确的精确测量说明,中微子的品质接近电子质量的百万分之一。巴克桑并不是唯一着眼于这类超现实主义工作的地区。

The men and women in these photographs, taken by Maxim Babenko last year, share an underground union with scientists scattered around the world in equally deep places: the Sanford Underground Research Facility in the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, S.D.; the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, beneath the mountain of that name in Italy; the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Ontario, Canada; the Super-Kamiokande, deep within Mount Ikeno, Japan; and IceCube, an array of detectors buried in ice at the South Pole.马克西姆·巴大学本科(Maxim Babenko)上年拍摄的这种相片中的男人和美女们,与世界各国的深地试验室的专家同归归属于一个地底同盟。这种深地试验室还包含:坐落于英国南卡罗来纳州里一座荒芜金矿石里的桑福得地底研究室(Sanford Underground Research Facility),坐落于西班牙同名的山峰下的格兰萨索国家级实验室,坐落于澳大利亚维多利亚州的萨德伯里中微子观测站(Sudbury Neutrino Observatory),坐落于日本国池野生最深处的非常神冈观测站(Super-Kamiokande),及其挖到在南极洲下边冰面中的一个起名叫冰立方(IceCube)的探测仪列阵。All of them are trying to listen to quantum whispers about the nature of reality. One of Baksan’s biggest claims to fame to date was to catch neutrinos emitted by thermonuclear reactions in the center of the sun in nearly 60 tons of liquid gallium. The experiment, called S.A.G.E., for Soviet-American Gallium Experiment, proved that scientists actually do know what powers our favorite star, source of our life and light.全部这种中微子试验室的工作人员们都会妄图倾听量子科技中透露的感觉实质。

到迄今为止,让巴克桑最知名的造就之一是,用近60吨的液体镓捕获了太阳光管理中心的热核反应起飞的中微子。这一起名叫“前苏联-英国镓试验”(Soviet-American Gallium Experiment,全名SAGE)的试验证实,生物学家确实告知是啥在驱动器大家最爱的行星,地球上性命跟光的来源于。

宇宙

中微子

Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the scientists in Baksan have had to fend off both thieves and the Russian government to keep their gallium, an element that goes for some $500 a kilogram. Physicists know that neutrinos come in at least three flavors, known as electron, muon and tau neutrinos, depending on their subatomic origin. To add to the confusion, neutrinos have a kind of quantum superpower: They can molt from one type to another, sort of like a jail escapee changing clothes as he flees. An electron neutrino, say, can emerge from a nuclear reactor in one place and appear in a detector somewhere else as a muon neutrino. This complicates the cosmic accounting of these creatures.自打前苏联解体以后,巴克桑的专家为了更好地维护保养她们的镓,迫不得已另外抵御术士和俄罗斯政府,镓是一种1公斤市场价500美元的原素。科学家们告知,中微子至少有三种,因为其各有不同的亚原子发源,中微子被分为电子器件中微子、μ中微子和τ中微子。更为让其没法木村的是,中微子有一种量子科技强力能:他们能够从一种变成另一种,就看上去一个逃脱者在逃跑全过程中换成了衣服裤子一样。例如,一个地区的核反应堆中出狱的电子器件中微子,能够以μ中微子的方式经常会出现在另一个地区的探测仪中。

这给推算出来宇宙中这类颗粒的总数生产制造了艰辛。Physicists are arguing intensely these days over whether there is evidence for a fourth type, called sterile neutrinos. That is the object of a new experiment called B.E.S.T., for Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions, now underway in the rusty Baksan tunnels. Although neutrinos are the lightest and flimsiest and perhaps most fickle particles of the universe, they are also among the most numerous, outnumbering the protons and electrons that make up us and ordinary matter by a billion to one. And so neutrinos contribute about as much mass to the universe as the visible stars.现如今的科学家们依然在日趋激烈争论否有直接证据强调不会有着第四种中微子,即可塑性中微子。它是已经巴克桑年久隧道施工中进行的起名叫“可塑性转换巴克桑试验”(Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions,全名BEST)的新实验室科学研究的目标。尽管中微子是宇宙中最大、最透明色、或许也是最易失的颗粒,但他们也是总数至少的一种,比包括人与一般化学物质的质子和电子器件多十亿倍。

因此 中微子对宇宙品质的奉献与由此可见行星的奉献类似。An extra population of neutrinos discovered by scientists in a cave in the Caucasus would affect basic calculations of the expansion of the universe. The discovery this month of a high-energy neutrino from a far
distant galaxy passing through the IceCube detector at the South Pole elicited headlines around the world.假如生物学家在高加索山脉的洞窟里找寻了之前不告知的中微子得话,那不容易危害宇宙空间收拢的基础推算出来。

南极洲的冰立方探测仪当月检验到从在其中历经的、来源于很远星球的高能中微子,这一寻找引起了全球的瞩目。Meanwhile, unaware that they are being harassed by extraterrestrial visitors, horses graze outside Baksan, and life goes on, whether we understand it or not.不告知自身遭受外星球观看者侵犯的马儿们,已经巴克桑观察站外边的山顶喂草。

无论大家了解是否,生命一如既往。

本文关键词:巴克,宇宙,欧冠足球app下载,中微子

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